Attack Surface and Defence Surface Visually Explained

With this visual schema, hopefully, there is no need of further textual explanations for most of us. Some people may wonder, though, what would happen if biometrics is deployed with another factor in two-layer (in-series) formation.

The answer is that the availability of the overall scheme would be badly lost; citizens who get falsely rejected by biometrics would have no means of quick rescue even if they are able to feed the correct password or present the correct token.

As a matter of fact, to the best of our knowledge, biometrics solutions so far implemented are all deployed in two-entrance (in-parallel) formation, thus increasing the attack surface. It is because biometrics is probabilistic; the object it measures is the unpredictably variable body features of animals living in ever changing environments.

Should someone imagine the security effect of ‘2-Factor Scheme’ when hearing of ‘Pseudo-2F Scheme’, they are trapped in a false sense of security, which is the subject of this post — “False Sense of Security that is Worse than Lack of Security”

Incidentally, this schema also makes it clear that removal of the password would not contribute to the destruction of identity security only if the password provides only the attack surface, with zero defence surface. It is not the case obviously.

For more information and updates, please visit our website —

‘NO’ to Attack on Democracy from within and without



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Hitoshi Kokumai

Advocate of ‘Identity Assurance by Our Own Volition and Memory’, Inventor of Expanded Password System and Founder of Mnemonic Identity Solutions Limited in UK.