Still attempting to destroy identity security in banking? Horrifying, isn’t it?

Hitoshi Kokumai
2 min readApr 4, 2021


“Smartphone Biometrics for Banking — A Decade of Developments”

However, once you get reminded of the PIN authentication embedded in your smartphone as a default login tool, you will no longer dare to allege that adding biometrics contributes to security.

Even a perfectly spoofing-proof biometrics could only provided the level of security lower than a PIN-only authentication when the biometrics is deployed in ‘multi-entrance’ method with the default PIN as a fallback measure against false rejection (false negative).

Ref: “Early models of smartphones were safer than newer models — How come?”

Key References

For Achieving Solid Digital Identity on Information Security Buzz (Mar/2021)

What We Know for Certain about Authentication Factors

Digital Identity for Global Citizens

Image-to-Code Conversion by Expanded Password System

Summary and Brief History — Expanded Password System

Proposition on How to Build Sustainable Digital Identity Platform

Additional References

Negative Security Effect of Biometrics Deployed in Cyberspace

Account Recovery with Expanded Password System

External Body Features Viewed as ‘What We Are’

History, Current Status and Future Scenarios of Expanded Password System

Negative Security Effect of Biometrics Deployed in Cyberspace

Removal of Passwords and Its Security Effect

Availability-First Approach

Update: Questions and Answers — Expanded Password System and Related Issues

< Videos on YouTube>

Slide: Outline of Expanded Password System (3minutes 2seconds)

Digital Identity for Global Citizens (10minutes — narrated)

Demo: Simplified Operation on Smartphone for consumers (1m41s)

Demo: High-Security Operation on PC for managers (4m28s)

Demo: Simple capture and registration of pictures by users (1m26s)

Slide: Biometrics in Cyber Space — “below-one” factor authentication



Hitoshi Kokumai

Advocate of ‘Identity Assurance by Our Own Volition and Memory’, Inventor of Expanded Password System and Founder of Mnemonic Identity Solutions Limited in UK.